Public Online Keynote Speech on “Outside the Bubble: Social Media and Political Participation in Western Democracies”

Next week, I very much look forward to giving the first talk about my forthcoming book, written with Augusto Valeriani, Outside the Bubble: Social Media and Political Participation in Western Democracies, to be published later this year as part of the Oxford Studies in Digital Politics series with Oxford University Press.

The talk will be online and open to everyone. To attend, please register here. It is part of an exciting conference on “Communication Power of Global Citizens and Politicians”, organized by Shelley Boulianne, Karolina Koc-Michalska, and Kari Steen-Johnsen.

I am very grateful for the invitation and even though I am sorry that we will not be meeting in person in Paris, where the conference was supposed to take place, I am very much looking forward to discussing the key ideas and results presented in the book.

New Article: Online Social Endorsement and Vaccine Hesitancy

I have contributed to a study just published in Social Media + Society (open access) that sheds light on the factors that predict members of the UK public’s intention to encourage or discourage vaccination against COVID-19.

Chadwick, A., Kaiser, J., Vaccari, C., Freeman, D., Lambe, S., Loe, B. S., … Yu, L.-M. (2021). Online Social Endorsement and Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in the United Kingdom. Social Media + Society, 7, 20563051211008816.

Based on a large online survey of a sample that matches the UK adult population on key demographics, we find that about one-third of the British public intends to encourage vaccination against COVID-19, about one-tenth intends to discourage vaccination, and the majority are undecided. Vaccine hesitancy is a key predictor of the intention to encourage or discourage vaccination, but the media from which people get their vaccine news also matter, particularly in conjunction with news-finds-me attitudes and conspiracy mentalities.

This has been a joint effort with Andrew Chadwick, Johannes Kaiser, Daniel Freeman, SineŐĀad Lambe, Bao S. Loe, Samantha Vanderslott, Stephan Lewandowsky, Meghan Conroy, Andrew R. N. Ross, Stefania Innocenti, Andrew J. Pollard, Felicity Waite, Michael Larkin, Laina Rosebrock, Lucy Jenner, Helen McShane, Alberto Giubilini, Ariane Petit & Ly-Mee Yu and part of the ongoing Oxford Coronavirus Explanations, Attitudes, and Narratives (OCEANS) project ‚ÄĒ a collaboration involving Oxford, Loughborough, Cambridge, Aston, and Bristol universities, led by Professor Daniel Freeman at Oxford.

My colleague Andrew Chadwick, who is the lead author of this article, summarized the key findings and policy recommendations emerging from the study in this post on Medium. The study has been covered extensively by UK media, including ITV.

Videos of the IJPP Special Issue Symposium on Visual Politics

On 27 January 2021, The International Journal of Press/Politics hosted a symposium to present a discuss a special issue on “Visual Politics”, guest-edited by Erik Bucy and Jungseock Joo, which features an outstanding selection of international and interdisciplinary articles on the role of visuals in contemporary political communication. Together with the authors of the published manuscripts and the guest editors, we were delighted to host a keynote speech by Professor Betsi Grabe (Indiana University).

Below you can find the video recordings of the event in all its parts.

Introduction

Welcome and General Introduction
Cristian Vaccari (Loughborough University)

Grand Collaborative Programs: An Overview 
Erik Bucy (Texas Tech University)
Jungseock Joo (University of California Los Angeles)

Roundtable 1: Visual Politics and the Global Pandemic

  • Moderator: Cristian Vaccari
  • Panelists: Scott Brennen (Duke University), Viorela Dan (LMU Munich), Thomas Powell (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research), Damian Trilling (University of Amsterdam)
  • Paper summaries from the IJPP special issue on visual politics.
  • Discussion: How can we apply visual politics research approaches to the Covid-19 pandemic and what insights could they generate?

Roundtable 2: Visual Politics and Populism

  • Moderator: Erik Bucy
  • Panelists: X√©nia Farkas (Corvinus University of Budapest), Jenny Lindholm (√Öbo Akademi University), Ricardo Mendon√ßa (Federal University of Minas Gerais), Felix Simon (University of Oxford)
  • Paper summaries from the IJPP special issue on visual politics.
  • Discussion: How can we apply visual politics research approaches to better understand the rise of populist politics‚ÄĒcurrently, historically, and looking ahead?

Keynote Address: The Social Side of Sight

Betsi Grabe (Indiana University)
Introduced by Erik Bucy

Roundtable 3: Visual Politics and Social Justice  

  • Moderator: Jungseock Joo (UCLA) ¬†
  • Panelists: Stephanie Geise (University of M√ľnster), Patrick Stewart (University of Arkansas), Susana Rogeiro Nina (University of Lisbon), Yilang Peng (University of Georgia)
  • Paper summaries from the IJPP special issue on visual politics.
  • Discussion: How can we apply visual politics research approaches to the analysis of protest and social justice movements to provide a better understanding of the public mood and demands for change?
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Call for papers for the seventh conference of The International Journal of Press/Politics (Virtual, 13-16 September 2021)

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Call for papers
Virtual Conference of the International Journal of Press/Politics
Zoom, 13-16 September 2021
Deadline for abstracts: 5 July 2021

On 13-16 September 2021, the seventh conference of the International Journal of Press/Politics, focused on academic research on the relationship between media and political processes around the world, will be held virtually. Professor Young Mie Kim from the University of Wisconsin will deliver a keynote lecture.

The deadline for submission of abstracts is 5 July 2021. Attendees will be notified of acceptance by 12 July 2021. Full papers based on accepted abstracts will be due 1 September 2021. A selection of the best full papers presented at the conference will be published in the journal after peer review.

The conference will be free to attend. There will be a voluntary conference registration fee for presenters of GBP 30. Attendees will need to register to receive the secure link to participate in the conference, and those who want to contribute to the conference budget will be able to make a symbolic donation of GBP 5. The software will be able to host up to 500 participants at any time. Recordings of the conference video feed will be made available to the public shortly after the event.

The virtual conference brings together scholars conducting internationally oriented or comparative research on the intersection between news media and politics around the world. It aims to provide a forum for academics from a wide range of disciplines, countries, and methodological approaches to advance research in this area. The conference will be held on four days, in half-day sessions alternating mornings and afternoons that will include presentations and networking sessions. The program of the 2020 conference, which adopted a similar format, is available here.

Examples of relevant topics include, but are not limited to, the political implications of changes in media systems; the importance of digital media for engaging with news and politics; analysis of the factors affecting the quality of political information and public discourse; studies of the role of entertainment and popular culture in how people engage with current affairs; studies of relations between political actors and journalists; analyses of the role of visuals and emotion in the production and processing of public information; and research on political communication during and beyond elections by government, political parties, interest groups, and social movements. The journal and the conference have a particular interest in studies that adopt comparative approaches, represent substantial theoretical or methodological advances, or focus on parts of the world that are under-researched in the international English language academic literature.

Titles and abstracts for papers (maximum 300 words) are invited by 5 July 2021. The abstract should clearly describe the key question, the theoretical and methodological approach, the evidence the argument is based on, as well as its wider implications and the extent to which they are of international relevance.

Please send submissions via the online form available at http://bit.ly/IJPP2021.

The conference is organized by Cristian Vaccari (Loughborough University, Editor-in-Chief of IJPP). Please contact Professor Vaccari with questions at c.vaccari@lboro.ac.uk.

More about the journal and the keynote speaker.

The International Journal of Press/Politics

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The International Journal of Press/Politics is an interdisciplinary journal for the analysis and discussion of the role of the media and politics in a globalized world. The journal publishes theoretical and empirical research which analyzes the linkages between the news media and political processes and actors around the world, emphasizes international and comparative work, and links research in the fields of political communication and journalism studies, and the disciplines of political science and media and communication. The journal is published by Sage Publications and is ranked 16th by Scopus (SJR) and 17th by Journal Citation Reports in Communication.

Professor Young Mie Wim, University of Wisconsin

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Young Mie Kim is a Professor of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication and a Faculty Affiliate of the Department of Political Science. Kim is a 2019 Andrew Carnegie Fellow. Kim‚Äôs research concerns data-driven, algorithm-based, digitally mediated political communication. Kim‚Äôs recent research project, Project DATA (Digital Ad Tracking & Analysis), empirically investigates the sponsors, content, and targets of digital political campaigns across multiple platforms with a user-based, real-time, ad tracking tool that reverse engineers the algorithms of political campaigns. Kim and her team‚Äôs research, ‚ÄúThe Stealth Media? Groups and Targets behind Divisive Issue Campaigns on Facebook,‚ÄĚ identified ‚Äúsuspicious groups,‚ÄĚ including Russian groups on Facebook. The work received the Kaid-Sanders Best Article of the Year in Political Communication (2018), awarded by the International Communication Association. Kim testified at the Federal Election Commission‚Äės hearings on the rulemaking of internet communication disclaimers and presented her research at the Congressional briefings on foreign interference in elections. Kim also spoke at the European Parliament on her research on data-driven political advertising and inequality in political involvement.

IJPP Special Issue Symposium on Visual Politics on 27 January 2021, 2-6pm UTC

IJPP Special Issue Symposium on Visual Politics
Conveners: Erik Bucy, Jungseock Joo, and Cristian Vaccari
Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2021 | 2:00pm to 6:00pm GMT/UTC
Note: All times are GMT time (UK time).

Times for the talks are inclusive of Q&A.
Free registration required via http://bit.ly/VisualPolitics

Earlier this year, The International Journal of Press/Politics has published a special issue on “Visual Politics”, guest-edited by Erik Bucy and Jungseock Joo, which features an outstanding selection of international and interdisciplinary articles on the role of visuals in contemporary political communication. The special issue is un-gated (i.e., free for everyone to read and download) until mid-February.

On the 27th of January 2021, we will present the special issue and discuss some of the themes emerging in this exciting area of research in an online public event. Together with the authors of the published manuscripts and the guest editors, we will be delighted to host a keynote speech by Professor Betsi Grabe (Indiana University).

Below is the program. The event is free and open to everyone. Please register via http://bit.ly/VisualPolitics.

IJPP Special Issue Symposium on Visual Politics
Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2021 | 2:00pm to 6:00pm GMT/UTC

2:00-2:10pm Welcome and General Introduction

Cristian Vaccari (Loughborough University)

2:10-2:30pm Grand Collaborative Programs: An Overview 

Erik Bucy (Texas Tech University)

2:30-3:15pm Roundtable 1: Visual Politics and the Global Pandemic

  • Moderator: Cristian Vaccari
  • Panelists: Scott Brennen (Duke University), Viorela Dan (LMU Munich), Thomas Powell (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research), Damian Trilling (University of Amsterdam)
  • Paper summaries from the IJPP special issue on visual politics.
  • Discussion: How can we apply visual politics research approaches to the Covid-19 pandemic and what insights could they generate?

3:15-4:00pm  Roundtable 2: Visual Politics and Populism

  • Moderator: Erik Bucy
  • Panelists: X√©nia Farkas (Corvinus University of Budapest), Jenny Lindholm (√Öbo Akademi University), Ricardo Mendon√ßa (Federal University of Minas Gerais), Felix Simon (University of Oxford)
  • Paper summaries from the IJPP special issue on visual politics.
  • Discussion: How can we apply visual politics research approaches to better understand the rise of populist politics‚ÄĒcurrently, historically, and looking ahead?

4:00 ‚Äď 4:10pm Break

4:10pm Introduction of Keynote Speaker

Erik Bucy

4:15-5:00pm Keynote Address: The Social Side of Sight

Betsi Grabe (Indiana University)

5:00-5:45pm Roundtable 3: Visual Politics and Social Justice  

  • Moderator: Jungseock Joo (UCLA) ¬†
  • Panelists: Stephanie Geise (University of M√ľnster), Patrick Stewart (University of Arkansas), Susana Rogeiro Nina (University of Lisbon), Yilang Peng (University of Georgia)
  • Paper summaries from the IJPP special issue on visual politics.
  • Discussion: How can we apply visual politics research approaches to the analysis of protest and social justice movements to provide a better understanding of the public mood and demands for change?

5:45-6:00pm Concluding Comments ‚Äď On Visual Politics and the Opportunity to Think Big

Cristian Vaccari, Jungseock Joo, Erik Bucy

6:00-6:30pm Virtual Happy Hour or Coffee Hour

I hope you will join us and help spread the word!

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Some thoughts on a very special 2020 for The International Journal of Press/Politics

I have written what has ended up being a rather long Twitter thread to recap and celebrate a very eventful 2020 for The International Journal of Press/Politics, which I am honored to serve as Editor-in-Chief. Here it is.

New PhD Position available at the Online Civic Culture Centre: deadline 21 January 2021

As part of our Leverhulme-funded new project “Understanding the Everyday Sharing of Misinformation on Private Social Media“, we have a new, fully-funded three-year PhD position. The deadline for applications is 11 January 2021.

Here is the job ad with the full specifications.

I am happy to answer any questions via email.

Come work with us! New three-year Postdoc Opportunity at O3C Loughborough (deadline 21 December 2020)

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Andy Chadwick and I are recruiting a full-time postdoctoral researcher, funded for three years as part of an exciting new Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant at the Online Civic Culture Centre at Loughborough University. The project is titled ‚ÄúUnderstanding the Everyday Sharing of Misinformation on Private Social Media‚ÄĚ.

The researcher’s main responsibilities will be to contribute to project management; gather, organize, and analyze qualitative and quantitative data; arrange events and meetings relating to research online and/or in person; and contribute to the dissemination of the research in academic publications and public reports. Qualitative skills, including experience of in-depth interviews (online and/or in person), focus groups (online and/or in person), and open thematic coding of these sources of data are essential. Some experience of using Nvivo or similar will be an advantage. Quantitative skills, including knowledge of multivariate statistical analysis and random assignment survey experiment design, are essential. Some experience of using R will be an advantage. Familiarity with basic concepts and methods of social network analysis will also be desirable but not essential.

Here is a link to the jpb ad with all the details.

The position commences March 1, 2021.

The closing date for applications is December 21, 2020.

If you have any informal questions, please feel free to email me.

US election 2020: A toolkit for ‚Äėdemocracy-worthy‚Äô coverage for journalists and readers

Over the past few weeks, I have been fortunate to work with the Election Coverage and Democracy Network, a group of more than 60 international experts who have developed a set of practical, evidence-based recommendations for how journalists should cover the next US Presidential election in a way that strengthens rather than weaken the democratic process.

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I have written a short article for The Conversation UK where I outline the reasons why we need news coverage to be responsible and act in the public interest, and in the interest of democracy, amidst what might be difficult circumstances if the electoral process is threatened before the vote, if the results are contested or one candidate fails to concede even if results are clear, and if civil unrest ensues after the vote.

As well as summarizing the key recommendations we make (download a copy here), I make two arguments.

First, that this is not only a job for US journalists, but for journalists all around the world, as international media — and British ones in particular — have sizable audiences overseas.

British media are very popular and influential in the US and they can play an important role in shaping how the American public will interpret the election and its aftermath. The BBC could well play a big role.¬†Research has shown¬†that 58% of Americans say they trust the broadcaster and 12% get at least some of their news from it each week. UK newspapers also have the potential to be influential players: in March 2020¬†the Guardian US recorded more than 114 million unique visits¬†while the Daily Mail online¬†attracts an estimated 73 million monthly unique visits in the US. Meanwhile, most readers of The Economist¬†are in North America. And the influence won‚Äôt stop there ‚Äď given their international prestige and recognition, British media are likely to shape news coverage of the US election all around the world.

Second, that readers can play an important role, by carefully choosing the kind of coverage we click on, read, and share online.

Readers and viewers have important roles to play as well. More than three-quarters of the UK population get their news online and nearly 40% on social media. The news that people choose to read on websites and news apps shapes the rankings that journalists and news executives use as indicators of what the public wants. The news they choose to share on social media influences the content that others discover on these platforms.

Please take a look at our website and follow our Twitter account, where we highlight many examples of news coverage that affirms what we call “democracy-worthy” values.

Call for Papers for a Special Issue of The International Journal of Press/Politics: ‚ÄúProtest and the Press‚ÄĚ

Call for Papers for a Special Issue of The International Journal of Press/Politics

‚ÄúProtest and the Press‚ÄĚ

Guest editors:
Summer Harlow, University of Houston (sharlow@central.uh.edu)
Danielle Kilgo, University of Minnesota (dkilgo@umn.edu)

The changing racial and ethnic composition in many countries around the world has contributed to the rise of racist and xenophobic politics, as well as more active political participation by ethnic and racial minorities. Social protests against state-sanctioned police brutality, racial injustice, xenophobia, and Islamophobia‚ÄĒas well as pro-status quo protests such as those against increased migration, in favor of white supremacy, and even against the wearing of masks during a pandemic‚ÄĒhave intensified in every region of the globe since the beginning of the new millennium. Previous research, particularly from Western societies, has shown that social movements need the media to help validate their agendas and mobilize supporters (Gamson & Wolsfeld, 1993). At the same time, mainstream news media routinely stigmatize collective action efforts, highlighting protesters‚Äô deviance and marginalizing their goals, grievances, and demands (McLeod & Hertog, 1999). This delegitimizing pattern of news coverage, referred to in the literature as the ‚Äúprotest paradigm‚ÄĚ, has prompted renewed interest from researchers seeking to understand how the paradigm operates around the world, in a digital era, when it comes to modern protests and hashtag activism (Jackson et al., 2020).

Over the past decade in particular, protest activity around racial injustice and conservative backlash has skyrocketed. This includes, among other examples: the massive 2020 protests over the killing of George Floyd in the United States that triggered (the revival and attention to) additional movements in countries around the world including Australia, the United Kingdom, and Kenya; right-wing anti-mask/anti-lockdown protests (e.g., in the United States and Brazil); repression and coverage of protests against citizenship laws targeting Muslims in India; protests against China’s national security laws in Hong Kong; the 2019 anti-government demonstrations in Sudan where hundreds of protesters were killed, and recent anti-immigration protests in Italy sparked by fears of COVID-19.

This special issue of The International Journal of Press/Politics aims to provide new research perspectives on how news media’s coverage of police and protests contributes to the legitimization of some movements and the delegitimization of others, with the goal of fleshing out the hierarchies of social struggle created by the press (Kilgo & Harlow, 2019) and the effects of that hierarchy on the public.

Recent research explores mediating factors that might diminish adherence to the protest paradigm, including the level of formality of a country’s political system (Streeck & Kenworthy, 2005; Shahin et al., 2016); the ideology of the media outlet and of the protesters (Claussen, 2000; Luther & Miller, 2005); and whether the coverage appears in traditional media, online-only publications, or social media (e.g., Harlow & Johnson, 2011; Harlow et al., 2020; see also this edited collection of articles on news coverage of protests published in IJPP). These, too, are likely contributors to the hierarchy of social struggle, helping us better predict when coverage of social movements will be more or less delegitimizing. This special issue seeks articles situating different movements, protests, demonstrations, rallies, and unrest within the hierarchy in order to identify other mediating factors that influence protest coverage and its ability to affect public opinion.

Research that offers a nuanced understanding of the effects of news coverage on public opinion is currently limited (but see Arpan et al., 2008; Kilgo & Mourao, 2019), so with this issue we aim to address that gap and shed new light on the ways in which news coverage might help or hinder social movements’ ability to mobilize supporters and acquire or strengthen their legitimacy. Methodologically, inquiries based on the protest paradigm have mostly been limited to content analyses, thereby overlooking the role of journalists or audiences. Scholarship also mostly neglects the perspective of activists and protesters. Further, most protest paradigm research is limited to the Global North. We therefore seek research overcoming these limitations to develop cumulative knowledge that explains the boundaries of the paradigm in an age of digital news and digitally enabled protest.

In addition, we call for research that moves beyond the paradigm, considering shifts in axiological and epistemological philosophies and pushing away from normative presumptions of news media‚Äôs allegiance to traditional journalistic routines, norms, and values. We encourage researchers to identify theoretical approaches that might explain and predict journalism‚Äôs role in contributing to broader power structures that suppress‚ÄĒor embolden– dissent.

We seek contributions that broaden the scope of research on protest and the press geographically, methodologically, and theoretically, and we particularly encourage comparative studies to better understand how contextual specificities, including media, criminal justice, and political systems, as well as culture, social and economic inequalities, racism, and ethnocentrism, might play a role in media representations of protest and audience and movement responses to those representations. This special issue aims to host contributions that offer a more holistic, global understanding of news coverage of protests and repression of protests, and the news media’s contribution to the public’s willingness to support protesters and their causes. Additionally, this special issue seeks to showcase fresh possibilities for theory development, methodological innovation, and cross-national comparisons to move past asking whether the protest paradigm remains relevant in this digital age, and instead interrogate new approaches to how, when, and why the relationships between media and protest vary around the world, what other factors may affect news coverage and audience responses, and what the consequences are not just for activists and movements in terms of repression or validation and mobilization, but also for social and policy change more broadly.

With this special issue we aim to bring together scholarly expertise from various disciplines and parts of the world. In particular, we encourage inter-disciplinary work that bridges different subdisciplines within communication as well as integrating approaches from sociology, political science, and criminal justice, among others. We also encourage submissions from scholars in under-represented regions to consider how the practice and discourse of news, police, and protests in non-Western countries varies from, and enables to expand, knowledge deriving from existing research.

We welcome contributions with a broad range of questions and methods. Possible topics include but are not limited to:

  • The myth of objectivity and the ethics of journalists covering protests and policing of protests from a particular standpoint
  • News values and the impact on coverage of relying on police as sources
  • The influence of social media platforms on media representations of police and protesters, from the perspective of users and of journalists
  • Analysis of the share-worthiness of news coverage of protests, and how narratives can create and discourage online engagement among news audiences
  • The mainstream media‚Äôs role and influence compared to alternative media sources, including social media influencer discourse and viral media
  • Visual analysis of protest images, including violent and peaceful depictions of protesters and police
  • Effects of protest representation on public opinion and interpretations of protest
  • The relationships between social movement actors, activists, citizen protesters, and local and national news media
  • Comparative analysis of protest coverage around the world for transnational protests or protests with similar agendas
  • Analysis of the intersection of freedom of speech and journalism, including how journalists understand freedom of speech personally and professionally
  • Differences in media representations of right-wing and left-wing protests
  • The relationships between misinformation, disinformation, and protest coverage
  • Qualitative or critical analyses of protest coverage and imagery.

Submission information

Manuscript submissions for this special issue are due on 15 September 2021. Please submit your work through the journal‚Äôs¬†online submission portal¬†and ensure that the first line of the cover letter states: ‚ÄúManuscript to be considered for the special issue on Protest and the Press.‚ÄĚ Manuscripts should follow the¬†IJPP submission guidelines. Submissions will be subject to a double-blind peer review process and must not have been published, accepted for publication, or under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Please note that, to ensure consistency, submissions will only be considered for peer review after the 15 September 2021 deadline has passed.

Authors interested in submitting their work are encouraged to contact the guest editors, Summer Harlow (sharlow@central.uh.edu) or Danielle Kilgo (dkilgo@umn.edu) with questions.

Expected timeline

  • Paper submissions: 15 September 2021
  • First decision: 15 January 2022
  • Paper revisions due: 15 March 2022
  • Final decision: 15 May 2022
  • Online publication: July 2022
  • Print publication: October 2022

References

Arpan, L. M., Baker, K., Lee, Y., Jung, T., Lorusso, L., & Smith, J. (2006). News coverage of social protests and the effects of photographs and prior attitudes. Mass Communication & Society9(1), 1-20.

Claussen DS (2000) ‚ÄúSo far, news coverage of Promise Keepers has been more like advertising‚ÄĚ: The strange case of Christian men and print mass media. In Claussen D (ed) The Promise Keepers: Essays on Masculinity and Christianity. Jefferson, NC, USA: McFarland.

Gamson, W. A., & Wolfsfeld, G. (1993). Movements and media as interacting systems. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science528(1), 114-125.

Harlow, S. & Johnson, T.J. (2011). Overthrowing the protest paradigm? How The New York Times, Global Voices and Twitter covered the Egyptian Revolution. International Journal of Communication, 5, 1359-1374.

Harlow, S., Kilgo, D. K., Salaverr√≠a, R., & Garc√≠a-Perdomo, V. (2020). Is the Whole World Watching? Building a Typology of Protest Coverage on Social Media from Around the World. Journalism Studies, 1-19.

Jackson, S. J., Bailey, M., & Welles, B. F. (2020). # HashtagActivism: Networks of Race and Gender Justice. MIT Press.

Kilgo, D. K., & Harlow, S. (2019). Protests, media coverage, and a hierarchy of social struggle. The International Journal of Press/Politics24(4), 508-530.

Kilgo, D., & Mour√£o, R. R. (2019). Media Effects and Marginalized Ideas: Relationships Among Media Consumption and Support for Black Lives Matter. International Journal of Communication13 (2019), 1487-4305.

Luther, C.A. & Miller, M.M. (2005) Framing of the 2003 US-Iraq war demonstrations: An analysis of news and partisan texts. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 82: 78‚Äď96.   

 McLeod, D. M., & Hertog, J. K. (1999). Social control, social change and the mass media‚Äôs role in the regulation of protest groups. Mass media, social control, and social change: A macrosocial perspective, 305-330.

Shahin, S., Zheng, P., Sturm, H.A. & Fadnis, D. (2016). Protesting the paradigm: A comparative study of news coverage of protests in Brazil, China and India. The International Journal of Press/Politics 21: 143‚Äď164. Streeck, W., & Kenworthy, L. (2005). Theories and Practices of Neocorporatism. In T. Janoski, R. Alford, A. Hicks, & M. A. Schwartz (Eds.) The Handbook of Political Sociology: States, Civil Societies, and Globalization (pp. 441‚Äď460). New York: Cambridge University Press.